Description: Cognitive control allows the coordination of cognitive processes to achieve goals. Control may be sustained in anticipation of goal-relevant cues (proactive control) or transient in response to the cues themselves (reactive control). Adolescents typically exhibit a more reactive pattern than adults in the absence of incentives. We investigated how reward modulates cognitive control engagement in a letter-array working memory (WM) task in 30 adolescents (12-17 years) and 20 adults (23-30 years) using a mixed block- and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design. After a Baseline run without rewards, participants performed a Reward run where 50% trials were monetarily rewarded. Accuracy and reaction time (RT) differences between Reward and Baseline runs indicated engagement of proactive control, which was associated with increased sustained activity in the bilateral anterior insula (AI), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). RT differences between Reward and No reward trials of the Reward run suggested additional reactive engagement of cognitive control, accompanied with transient activation in bilateral AI, lateral PFC, PPC, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate cortex, putamen and caudate. Despite behavioural and neural differences during Baseline WM task performance, adolescents and adults showed similar modulations of proactive and reactive control by reward.Communities: developmental
Related article: http://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsz093
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